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From: "David Ewing" <>
Subject: Re: [R-M222] NPE Frequency
Date: Sun, 30 Nov 2008 11:02:25 -0700


Sandy listed some of the ways a man can end up with a different surname than
his biological father.

- adoption
- using the mother's surname when the mother is unmarried
- misattributed paternity
- pregnant by a different man at time of marriage
- adultry during marriage
- father unknown

Here are some other ways a man can have a different surname than his
biological father:

- changing family name to the name of the wife in order to receive an
inheritance or garner social standting
- person without a surname choosing or being assigned one.
- person who has a surname changing it to hide from the law or show
switched clan loyalty.
- name changed in connection with moving between cultures or linguistic
groups, as with immigration officers altering or changing altogether names
they could not pronounce at Ellis Island.

As for statistics on NPEs, I remember but cannot give a citation for the
statistic that 2% to 5% of fathers turn out not to be biologically related
to their presumptive children when tissue typing is done in connection with
looking for an organ donor. As for your calculations about the Dal Riata,
you must consider that in the case of most NPEs in this group, the
biological father and the owner of the surname would both have been in the
Dal Riata group.

David Ewing


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