Archiver > GENEALOGY-DNA > 2003-11 > 1068087330

Subject: Re: [DNA] Waves and Celts
Date: Wed, 5 Nov 2003 21:55:30 EST

In a message dated 11/5/03 3:39:53 PM Pacific Standard Time,
. The concept of waves is in error.
Think more of a transfer of culture. The earlier people did not leave. The
Proto Celt to Celt paradigm was being floated about in the late 1970s....
heresy back then, but now we know it as true.
The concept of waves might be an error in this particular case of Proto Celt
to Celt but I think waves is a good analogy for what happened here in North
America. I don't have any knowledge of the particular Proto Celt case you wrote
about -- but 'waves is a valid description of what happened on this side of
the Atlantic.

In our history you can see where a number of different forms of cultural
change occurred. Some Native American's genes blended into the European through
miscegenation. Some NA groups were assimilated, some groups were pushed to the
West, and some were just ruthlessly slaughtered. Maybe the European used a
peaceful "transfer of culture" in the British Isles -- but I really doubt it.

I've always thought there was irony in the fact that the Five Civilized
Tribes attempted to assimilate but then they were forced off their land, forced to
move west on the Trail of Tears. The Cheyenne tribe was forced west by other
Indians who were moving west in front of the advancing Europeans. A band of the
Cheyenne tribe, under Chief Black Kettle, tried to live in peace near Sand
Creek Colorado but they were wiped out by the troops of Colonel John Chivington,
a Methodist minister. Also, we know some NA were assimilated because they are
a viable part of the culture I live in. There are Indian casinos in many

I could list other places where people were forced west by the waves coming
from Europe. However, I can't think of many places where a peaceful transfer of
culture occurred. But I will "think more of a transfer of culture." I'll just
not give it much credence, not in most cases.

Grant W. Johnston, Chico, CA

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