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From: "Steven C. Perkins" <>
Subject: [DNA] Re: [DNAanthro] New World mtDNA haplogroups (fwd)
Date: Tue, 11 Nov 2003 17:02:26 -0600 (CST)


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---------- Forwarded message ----------
Subject: Re: [DNAanthro] New World mtDNA haplogroups
>
>Date sent: Tue, 11 Nov 2003 20:51:03 +0000
>From: ghorvat2001 <>
>Subject: [DNAanthro] New World mtDNA haplogroups
>To:
>Send reply to:
>
> > I thought that some of the subscribers, here, might be
> > interested in something that I posted elsewhere, today,
> > when the subject of the Kennewick Man came up again.
> > Hopefully, it is not a 'rerun' for too many. It merely
> > represents my current understanding of the subject.
> > ------------
> > In response to the present views (apparently) that current
> > Native Americans are descendents of Northern Asians and past
> > Native Americans are descended from some other population(s),
> > I have gathered together some information concerning their
> > mtDNA haplogroups. The first part is essentially an explanation
> > of the 'skeleton phylogeny' located at:
> >
> > http://www.stats.gla.ac.uk/~vincent/images/skeleton07-08-02.jpg
> >
> > with a few other bits of information (such as Australian) added.
> > As is presently known, the mtDNA sequences of all non Africans
> > cluster into two separate groups - N & M. Group R is further
> > distinguished from N by a few more recent mutations.
> >
> > The mtDNA haplogroups of non-Africans
> >
> > I Super-haplogroup N
> > haplogroup A (America & Asia)
> > haplogroup I (Europe & surrounding area)
> > haplogroup X (Europe & surrounding area; North America)
> > haplogroup W (Europe & surrounding area)
> > haplogroup N1b (Europe & surrounding area)
> > haplogroup N9a (Asia)
> > haplogroup Y (Ainu & surrounding area)
> > some Australian haplogroups which are not yet named
> >
> > I(a) Sub-Super-haplogroup R
> > haplogroup B (Oceania, Asia & America)
> > haplogroup F (Asia)
> > haplogroups H, V, J, T, U, K (Europe & surrounding area)
> > haplogroup P (Melanesia)
> > other Australian & Melanesia haplogroups which are not yet named
> >
> > II Super-haplogroup M
> > haplogroup C (Asia & America)
> > haplogroup D (Asia & America)
> > haplogroups G, M1 ...M7, M8, M9, M10, Z (Asia)
> > haplogroup Q (Melanesia)
> > other unnamed Asian (esp. in India) & Oceanic haplogroups
> >
> > Because I, W, X and N1b are minor haplogroups of Europe, the
> > majority of European mtDNA sequences belong to group R.
> >
> > 70%+ Asian mtDNA sequences belong to group M. The ones which
> > belong to R are thought to have originated in the south.
> >
> > New World haplogroups A, B, C, D and X are not evenly
> > distributed within the New World. The following table, in
> > which the Colombian frequencies were singled out due to the
> > focus of the article, is from 'Possible Migration Routes into
> > South America Deduced from Mitochondrial DNA Studies in
> > Colombian Amerindian Populations, Keyeux et al. (Human Biology,
> > April 2002, v. 74, no. 2, pp. 211=AD233):
> >
> > Table 6. Haplogroup Frequencies in Amerindian Populations across
> > America (slightly modified and, hopefully, not to misaligned)
> >
> > Region...........N...A...B...C...D..Other (incl. X)
> > North America...829 42% 30% 16% 06% 06%
> > Central America.379 50% 30% 16% 03% 01%
> > Colombia........681 31% 31% 29% 07% 02%
> > South America...736 08% 35% 22% 34% 01%
> >
> > As should be obvious, the present frequency of haplogroup A
> > is highest in North and Central America and the frequency of
> > haplogroup D is highest in South America. For haplogroup A, a
> > peculiar situation exists. Phylogenetically, the haplogroup
> > clusters, primarily, with haplogroups of Europe & Australia
> > but outside the New World, it is pretty much only found in
> > Asia at an overall frequency of about 5% (my guesswork).
> > Haplogroup B is not found in Siberia to any extent but is
> > found in Polynesia, coastal New Guinea, southern China,
> > Indonesia, Taiwan, Korea, Mongolia, Kazakhstan & area and
> > Japan. Haplogroups C and D are fairly ubiquitous in Asia but
> > the former is rarer in the south (i.e. China) and the latter
> > currently reaches frequencies of about 40% in Japan & Korea.
> >
> > The other peculiar situation which exists is that the ancient
> > Fuegians, who only had sequences belonging to haplogroups
> > which are in all respects - Asian (C & D), were determined
> > to be outliers with respect to Mongoloid morphology (Lahr)
> > and the highest frequencies of haplogroup A are found in
> > the populations of northern North America, who are likely
> > thought to display more Mongoloid traits than other Native
> > Americans but, yet, their mtDNA sequences cluster with few
> > Asians.
> >
> > Whomever is familiar with the Y chromosome haplotypes of
> > Native Americans should be able to see the possibility of
> > reconciling this data with mtDNA when the emphasis is placed
> > upon the "super-haplogroups" rather than specific sequences
> > because, as I understand it, the Y haplotype which is thought
> > to have preceded the predominant ones of Europe & the
> > Americas is common in Oceania.
> >
> > My point, if there is one, is - if gene replacement occurred
> > somewhere, then there is more convincing evidence of if
> > having occurred in northern Asia than in the Americas (if the
> > presumed pathways into the Americas are reasonably accurate).
> > I think this is also true for the relevant Y chromosome
> > haplotypes. If gene replacement occurred in northern Asia,
> > then it's difficult to explain how northern and central
> > Native Americans, in particular, would have greater
> > affinities, craniometrically, with the newly expanded northern
> > Asian population than with their own predecessors. Are we
> > really sure that they do? I think this concept may have
> > originated with a few isolated studies in specific New World
> > locations. If, for instance, there is a clean break between
> > past and present New World crania in locations where mtDNA
> > haplogroup D sequences are fairly prominent (i.e. Brazil),
> > then there is a possibility of correlating this information
> > with the mtDNA. Craniometric comparisons, I think, only tell
> > part of the story. When this information is reconciled with
> > the genetic, then we will probably have a fuller understanding
> > of how the New World was populated.
> >
> > Gisele
> >
> >
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